The LHC is the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world. It was put back into service in April after a three-year technical shutdown for maintenance work and to improve its particle detection capabilities.
trillion trillion electronvolts (TeV) for four years”,”text”:”It will operate at its full collision power of 13.6 trillion trillion electronvolts (TeV) for four years”}}”>It will operate at its full collision power of 13.6 trillion electron volts (TeV) for four yearsCERN officials announced in a press briefing last week.
Its two beams of protons (the particles of the nucleus of the atom), accelerated to a speed close to that of light, will circulate in opposite directions in the 27 km ring, buried 100 meters underground at the French border. -Swiss.
The detectors of several experiments (in particular ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb) will then record the collisions of protons, which produce ephemeral particles explaining the functioning of matter.
to break particles to identify their components and their interactions.
The proton beams will be concentrated to reach a microscopic size at the interaction points, frommicrons, in order to increase the collision rate”,”text”:”10microns, in order to increase the collision rate”}}”>10 microns, to increase collision rate of protons, explained Mike Lamont.
The world temple of the infinitely small, built in 2008, led to the discovery of the Higgs boson, announced exactly ten years ago by Fabiola Gianotti, then coordinator of the CMS experiment and now Director General of CERN.
The Higgs boson is linked to some of the deepest questions in fundamental physics, from the structure and shape of the Universe to how other particles organize themselves.according to the researcher.
His discovery revolutionized physics, confirming the prediction of researchers who had made it, nearly 50 years earlier, a centerpiece of the standard model of particle physics. The Higgs boson is the manifestation of a field, that is to say a space, which gives mass to elementary particles forming matter.
The researchers were able to flush it out thanks to the analysis of around 1.2 billion billion collisions of protons between them. The third run of the LHC which opens on Tuesday will multiply this figure by twenty.
This is a significant increase that opens the way to new discoveriesnotes Mike Lamont.
Because the Higgs boson has not revealed all its secrets. Starting with its nature.
Is it a fundamental or a composite particle?, namely an assembly of several still unknown particles, asks Joachim Mnich, Director of Research and Computing at CERN. Better,
is this the only existing Higgs particle or are there others?
Past experiments have made it possible to determine the mass of the Higgs boson, and also to discover more than 60 composite particles predicted by the standard model, such as the tetraquark.
But as Gian Giudice, head of the theoretical physics department at CERN, reminds us,
particles are only the manifestation of a phenomenonwhereas
the goal of particle physics is to understand the fundamental principles of nature. Like the nature of the hypothetical dark matter or the no less mysterious dark energy.
Nine experiments will thus take advantage of the production of particles from the accelerator. Like ALICE, which studies the primordial plasma of matter that existed in the first ten microseconds after the big bang. Or LHCf, which simulates cosmic rays.
The next stage of the Grand Collider will come after the third break, in 2029, with its transition to the
high brightnesswhich will multiply by ten the number of detectable events.
Beyond that, CERN researchers are looking towards the future circular collider (FCC) project, a 100 km ring whose feasibility study is expected at the end of 2025.
It will be the ultimate machine for studying the Higgs boson, which is a very powerful tool for understanding fundamental physics.concluded Fabiola Gianotti.